Beside gluten free flours, starches are one of the main components in any gluten free product formulation. This is true for most baked goods, as well as their applications in other prepared or cooked foods.
Flour and Starches differ mainly in composition, with the latter having most, if not all, protein, fibres and endosperm removed during production.
In addition to their different nutritional compositions, everyone of the following categories of starches play their own specific role and purpose in food -formulation , -manufacturing and -production, with variant functionalities.
Furthermore starches, from different origins, plants, grains and pulses have even more specific functionalities and recipe applications inside their own categories.
You might find literally hundred upon hundreds of unique starch offerings, catering to any possible imaginable product challenge, application and attribution. To find out more information and specs about many of these ingredients, check out our upcoming Online Training Webinar “GF Diner Starches” at GF Diner Pro.
Amylose and Amylopectin, the two main glucose polymers present in starches, are part of the carbohydrate family in food.
Both of these glucose units have their own specific functionalities and nutritional attributes.
Corn, Potatoes, Tapioca, Rice, Arrowroot, Cassava and Peas are some of the main sources of gluten free starches. However many additional possible seeds, pulses and tubers are utilised.
Seeds, grains, pulses or tubers are most often crushed, milled and mashed with water in commercial native starch production. In this process any impurities, proteins, and fibres are washed out and the remaining starch paste is dried.
No chemicals and no other modification are commonly used for this type of starch.
Native Starches are modified in many food product application to provide for a variety of specific functionalities. These may be desired during food processing or in the final product. This goal can be achieved through different methods, such as physical or chemical processing.
Treatment of starches with enzymes offers an alternative opportunity to modify starch properties.
Some of the functionality provided by modification of starches, lies in the improved stability of starches against high shear, prolonged mixing times, excessive heating, cooling or freezing or high acidity conditions.
Modification might also be geared towards customisation of the native starch’s viscosity and texture, to allow for Cold Water Swelling or to impact the time for starch gelatinization.
Waxy Maize and Green Bananas play a unique role in context of Starch application during gluten free formulations and processes that are more widely used for texture and volume improvement. These resistant starches contribute further options for easy fiber fortification of gluten-free products.
They are resistant to the digestion in the small intestine and stomach.
In the large intestine resistant starches take on the role of functional and dietary fibres, which offer a unique benefit to gf products beside their texture and volume properties.